About - United Kingdom
Vietnamese is the national language. Officially, there are 54 ethnic groups. Many of whom would also speak their own language.
Vietnam occupies the easternmost coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. It is composed of two large fertile river deltas. The Red River Delta in the North and the Mekong River Delta in the South. Most of the population live in these two deltas, which are connected by a rugged, elongated S-shaped strip of coast bordered by mountains.
It is bordered by to the North by China, to the West by Cambodia and Laos, and to the East by the East Sea (also known as the South China Sea). It claims a number of islands in the East Sea, though these claims are disputed by China.
In the north, the climate is subtropical with four seasons include a hot summer and a cooler winter. The south is tropical and hot throughout the year, and a rain-filled monsoon climate in the southeast.
The early peoples of North Vietnam were perhaps the first in East Asia to practice agriculture and formed a fairly advanced civilization. Vietnam traces its beginnings as a nation back to 2,879BC when the first dynasty of the Hung Kings was established in the Red River Delta.
North, South Conflict
From 200 BC until 1000 AD, North Vietnam was a reluctant province of China. Chinese culture and religion became and remains an integral part of Vietnamese life. In 938 AD it became independent and grew into a dynamic force in East Asia. After consolidating its position in the north, the dynastic leaders cast their eyes south to the fertile Mekong Delta. From the 15th to 17th centuries, the North Vietnamese moved steadily South, swallowing up the warring Champa Kingdoms in the center and displacing the Khmer from the lower Mekong Delta in the South.
The North and South Vietnamese were at odds with each other through the ensuing centuries. Rivalry between them was sharpened with the arrival of the Europeans in Southeast Asia, and the country collapsed into vast rice lands controlled by feudal lords.
In 1862 the French acquired the Mekong Delta and 20 years later they extended their protectorate over the whole nation. Although there was little initial resistance, anti-colonial feeling swelled. In the 1920s, nationalist parties demanding independence were formed. In 1930 Ho Chi Minh formed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.
It wasn’t until the end of World War II that reform became possible. The Japanese occupation of the country during the war left a vacuum in 1945, which the French tried again to fill. The First Indo-Chinese War broke out between the French and the Vietminh (The League for the Independence of Vietnam), ending with the victory of the Vietminh in 1954. The subsequent Geneva Agreement divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with the Vietminh in the north and the French and their Vietnamese supporters in the south.
The increasingly Communist north resumed the conflict in 1963 (the Second Indo-Chinese War). Two years later, President Lyndon Johnson sent in American troops to support the anti-Communist south. The war continued until 1975 when the northern armies overran Saigon. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was formed.
However, the end of the war did not signal the end of violence. Tensions with Cambodia escalated, and in 1979 the Vietnamese invaded Cambodia, removed the Khmer Rouge, and installed a pro-Vietnamese government that lasted 10 years. A few weeks after attacking Cambodia, Vietnam was itself attacked by its Communist neighbor China and the brief but destructive border war resulted in a fresh wave of Vietnamese refugees. Troops were also stationed in Laos.
In the early 1990s the government sought to improve its foreign relations and to encourage foreign investment. The country signed a peace agreement with Cambodia in 1991 and shortly thereafter restored diplomatic relations with China. The U.S. removed a trade embargo in 1994, and full diplomatic relations were established in 1997.
Vietnam today is an active member of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and in 2007 joined the World Trade Organization. It is among the world’s top exporters of rice and coffee. It is becoming common to see “Made in Vietnam” on products in the West. Vietnam has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020.
Missionaries Forced to Leave
The government of the unified Communist Vietnam ordered all the missionaries to leave, and for the next 10 years few foreigners were able to enter the country until the change of economic policy, doi moi (renovation), came into effect.
Although the Communists closed half the 600 church buildings that existed when they took over, the church has grown significantly. In 1975 there were around 150,000 evangelicals, but this rose to an estimated 1.2 million in 2002. According to Operation World, there are approximately 1.5 million evangelicals in Vietnam today.
Growth Amidst Constraint
Approximately two-thirds of these believers are among Vietnam’s ethnic minority groups. The Hmong have been particularly responsive: in 1975 there were no known believers; today, more than 150,000 Hmong have come to believe, mainly through Christian radio broadcasts.
The growth of the church in Vietnam has taken place amidst considerable persecution, as Christians were seen as counter-revolutionary and a potential threat to the authorities. Pastors and lay people alike have been imprisoned, particularly among the minority groups and unregistered house churches. Christians tend to be treated as second-class citizens.
Government restrictions are most severe in the north, where there are still only about 15 registered churches, and in the capital, Hanoi, where there is only one. (Hundreds of minority congregations are currently awaiting registration.) In the south of the country there are fewer restrictions and now more than 1,000 registered churches and meeting places, including more than 50 in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon).
Tolerance and Opportunities
Bibles are obtainable in Vietnam, as is the Jesus film, and in the last few years it has also become possible to publish other Christian literature. However, there is still a great shortage of commentaries, children’s materials and other books. Good, quality translated material and more indigenous writing are both greatly needed.
In 2003 permission was given to re-open one Bible college (after a 27-year break) that is able to accept about 50 students a year to be trained to become pastors. Other church leaders are trained unobtrusively through such programs as Theological Education by Extension.
The need for economic development and trade has brought opportunities for people with skills in many professions, especially English teaching. Various development and aid agencies are serving the country. Small, but growing OMF International teams are involved as professionals working in both northern and southern Vietnam. The door is wide open and more workers are urgently needed.